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Appendix C

Problems and Their Solution

        Blurred Pictures - Out of Focus

        The camera was not properly focused. When using telephoto lenses or large lens openings, the depth of field becomes shallow. Focus carefully. A variation of a few feet may result in an out of focus picture.

        Blurred Pictures - Visible Movement:

        The camera was not held steady or the subject was moving. Use a shutter speed of at least 1/125 second. Squeeze the shutter release.

        Double Exposure

        This may be a malfunction of the camera's film advance mechanism, torn sprocket holes in the film, incorrect loading, or failure to advance film to the next frame.

        Fogged Film

        Opening the camera before the film is rewound or before the film is completely shot is a likely cause.

        Also it is possible for film to fog from old age. It is best to use and process the film promptly. do not leave film in the camera.

        Keep the camera cool because heat can cause marks on the film similar to fogging. Store the camera and film in cool dry place. Never store camera or film near a source of heat. This includes a car's glove compartment or trunk in hot weather.

        Fogged film will yeild poor results that cannot be corrected in printing.

        When the is rewind do not roll it too tight as it can cause damage similar to fogging. Slight burs or imperfections on the film rollers or pressure plate can scratch the film as well and look like fog.

        Overexposed Pictures (Pictures Too Light)

        Here too much light has gotten to the film. Be sure to watch the light meter for an overexposure indication. When possible use a smaller lens opening or faster shutter speed. Use a neutral density filter, or polarizing filter, to reduce the exposure as well.

        If the problem persists set ISO to a higher setting than what is film is rated for.

        When the entire film is totally blank, with not even ghost images, the film was never exposed. Either the film was not properly loaded or the lens cap was never removed.

        When the film is loaded be sure that the top and bottom sprocket holes are engaged in the film advance gears. If not, the film may not feed properly. If this problem persists the camera may need repair.

        Pictures Cut in Half

        This problem may occur with a flash. If the shutter is set a speed higher than the flash synchronization speed the pictures will be partially black.

        For example: If the camera synchronization speed is one-sixtieth (1/60) of a second it was set at one-one twenty fifth (1/125) the pictures will be cut in half. Why? The shutter is half closed when the flash fires. Remember, this condition applies to focal plane shutters only. Leaf shutters do not have this problem. Actually they, leaf shutters, sync at any speed.

        Pictures Not Level

        Here pictures seem to be going up or down hill and is caused by not holding the camera level. Next time take a few seconds as this can be seen before the picture is taken.

        Underexposed Pictures (Pictures Too Dark)

        Old batteries in the camera. Replace them even if they test as good. Not all battery testers duplicate working conditions.

        The ISO may have been set wrong. Underexposure will result when the setting is higher that the rating of the film. The camera thinks the film is more sensitive than it really is, so the camera gives too little light for the film.

        When using a flash be sure that the flash and camera are set for the same ISO number. If the flash does not put out enough light the pictures will be dark. With a manual flash dark pictures result when too small an f-stop is chosen.

        Go Take Trouble Free Pictures

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